Research: “Effects of ingesting protein with various forms of carbohydrate following resistance-exercise on substrate availability and markers of anabolism, catabolism, and immunity.”



Introduction
n  Much rumor, speculation and experimentation on best post-workout nutrition, hundreds of products
n  Very important to get proper nutrients after intense exercise to jumpstart recovery process.
n  Important for every physically active person, especially elite athletes and bodybuilders
n  -High GI Carbohydrates and
n  Quick-Digesting Protein within
n  30 minutes post-exercise
n  -Theoretically, Maltodextrin/
n  Dextrose Mix and Whey Protein
n   are recommended ideals
n  -Nutritional practices pioneered
n   by bodybuilders since the 1960s.
n  Significance
n  Very critical for athletic performance
n   and for Multi-billion dollar Fitness
n  and Nutritional Supplement industries.

Experimental Question:
n  Which carbohydrate source will contribute to the greatest level of overall physical recovery post-exercise when combined with protein?

Important Measureable Levels of Recovery Post-Exercise:
n  1) Insulin
n  2) Glycogen Levels and Resynthesis
n  3) Growth Hormone
n  4) Blood Glucose Available
n  5) Anabolic/Catabolic Markers
n  6) Immunity Markers
n  7) Protein Synthesis

Experiment Methodology
n  Subjects:
n  Forty subjects (19 males and 21 females) volunteered to participate in this study. All subjects had participated in at least one year of resistance training prior to testing
n  Baseline Measurements:
n  Estimated 1RM on 9 Nautilus Exercise Machines found via Epley Formula
n  Subjects Abstained from exercise 48 hours, fasted for 12 hours, donated pre-exercise blood sample as baseline.
n  Subjects did 3 sets of 10 reps on each of the 9 Nautilus Machines, 2 minutes rest between each set
n  Post-exercise blood sample then given
n  Supplements given post-exercise
n  Double-blind study

Experimental Groups:
n  Each group had 10 subjects
n  Group C (Control Group) received no carbohydrates or protein post-workout
n  Group H ingested 40 grams of whey protein with 120 grams of Powdered Honey
n  Group S ingested 40 grams of whey protein with 120 grams of Sucrose
n  Group M 40 grams of whey protein with 120 grams of Maltodextrin
n  Ingested after original post-exercise blood sample taken, samples taken at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes
n  While seated recovering post-workout, subjects questioned about hypoglycemia, dizziness, nausea, and headaches on a scale of 0-10

Blood Sample Testing
n  Taken to laboratory for full analysis of desired variables
n  Determined levels of concentration for Glucose, Insulin, Testosterone, Cortisol, and Creatine Kinase,
n  Test to test reliability of performing these analyses ranged from 2 to 6% for individual analysis with an average variation of +/- 3%
n   Some gender effects but minimal significance, women’s testosterone : cortisol ratio were significantly less but that didn’t effect any one specific group more than the other



Experimental Results:
n  Group H had large peak in blood glucose levels 30 minutes after ingestion, levels declined after that.
n  Group H had a significantly higher blood glucose level at 30 and 60 minutes than any other group
n  Group H, S, and M all significantly higher than Group C
n  Insulin response levels were higher in groups H, S, and M compared with group C at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post-ingestion. There was no statistically significant difference between either carbohydrate type and insulin concentration levels.
n  Testosterone levels, cortisol levels, and ratio of testosterone : cortisol did not change significantly over the 120 minute post-ingestion
n  Creatine Kinase increased significantly post-ingestion even through 120 minutes over Control Group
n  Nutritional supplementation caused groups H, S, and M to have a significantly higher Blood Urea Nitrogen : Creatinine Ratio towards the end of recovery, no significant differences within supplement groups
n  Muscle and Liver Enzymes Alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) increased significantly post-ingestion but then returned back to baseline after 60-120 minutes
n  General Immune Markers such as WBCs, Neutrophils, and Neutrophil : Total Lymphocyte ratio all increased significantly for groups H, S, and M over the Control Group (p<.0001)
n  No significant differences between the three supplemental groups



Side Effects Comparison
n  Minimal severity and frequency of side effects reported.
n  No significant differences were observed among groups in perceptions of hypoglycemia (p = 0.851), dizziness (p = 0.711), headache (p = 0.422), stomach upset (p = 0.325), or fatigue (p = 0.837).
Experimental Critique
n  Only one trial per subject
n  12 hour fast could have magnified post-supplemental changes
n  Could have used a larger sample size per group (20+ per group instead of 10)
n  Control group of just Whey Protein and no carbohydrates instead of just nothing
n  Male:Female ratio was very close for each of the 4 groups in this study but ideally should have been completely equal
n  More detail about any other chemicals or nutrients involved in the supplement shakes given to subjects, they could skew or confound results
n  Nautilus Machines used, simple machines, 2 minute breaks between sets, free weights may have elicited a greater change in testosterone/cortisol levels

Discussion
n  Overall, study does not suggest major difference in supplemental ingestion between these three high GI carbohydrates
n  Results suggest that nearly any higher GI carbohydrate will have the intended effect of increasing overall physiological recovery post-exercise
n  Not worth spending big money on specific carbohydrate types, any similar ones will have same effectiveness.
n  Provides more evidence that whey protein and high GI carbs are extremely beneficial post-workout for reducing immunosuppressive effects of exercise, decreased blood sugar levels, muscle atrophy, and an overall anabolic environment.



Further Experimentation:
n  Experimentation on variety of elite athletes (power, endurance, mixed)
n  Experimentation on elite bodybuilders
n  Exploring significance of immune system stimulation on subjects over a long period of time, possibly those with immunodeficiencies.
n  Ideal Post-workout supplementation for diabetics

Works Cited
n  Almada, Anthony L., B. Kreider, Conrad P. Earnest, Jennifer         Lundberg, Christopher Rasmussen, Michael Greenwood, and Patricia              Cowan. Effects of ingesting protein with various forms of           carbohydrate following resistance-exercise on substrate         availability and markers of anabolism, catabolism, and                 immunity. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 4.18 (Nov 12, 2007): p18
n  Campbell B, Kreider RB, Ziegenfuss T, La Bounty P, Roberts M, Burke D,                 Landis J, Lopez H, Antonio J: International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Protein and Exercise. J Int Soc Sports                 Nutr 2007, 4(1): 8.
n  Chandler RM, Byrne HK, Patterson JG, Ivy JL: Dietary supplements          affect the anabolic hormones after                 weight-training exercise. J          Appl Physiol 1994, 76(2): 839-845.
n  Conley MS, Stone MH: Carbohydrate ingestion/supplementation or      resistance exercise and training. Sports Med 1996, 21(1): 7-17.
n  Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Bush JA, Putukian M, Sebastianelli WJ:     Hormonal responses to consecutive days of heavy-                resistance exercise with or without nutritional                 supplementation. J Appl Physiol 1998, 85(4): 1544-1555.
n  Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Aarsland AA, Sanford AP, Wolfe RR:         Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein                          ingestion before and after exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab                 2007, 292(1): E71-76.

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